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Artificial IntelligenceDepartment of Computer Sc Department of Computer Science & Engineering e & Engineering

October 22, 2017 - Basic computer language, Computer Books, Ebook

Department Computer Sc Department of Computer Science & Engineering e & Engineering

Indian   Institute of Technology Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur.

Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence
Course: CS40002 Course: CS40002
Instructor: Dr. Instructor: Dr. Pallab Dasgupta Pallab Dasgupta
Department of Computer Sc Department of Computer Science & Engineering e & Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 2
What is AI? What is AI?
„ Turing Test (1950) Turing Test (1950)
 The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
 It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
human at the other end human at the other end
• Sufficiency: The Chinese Room Argument
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 3
The ability to solve problems The ability to solve problems
„ Search: Search: Efficient trial Efficient trial-and-error
‹ Enormous computational complexity Enormous computational complexity
‹ Space-time trade time trade-offs
‹ Use of domain knowledge e of domain knowledge – heuristics heuristics
Integer
Prog. Linear
Prog.
Dynamic
Prog.
Heuristic
Search Evolutionary
Algorithms
During 1985 During 1985-1995 computation became free computation became free
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 4
Knowledge and Deduction Knowledge and Deduction
„ How to store and retrieve knowledge? How to store and retrieve knowledge?
„ How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce? How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?
„ The gap between knowledge and realization The gap between knowledge and realization
„ Logics of knowledge of knowledge
Knowledge
Based
Systems Expert Systems
Automated
Theorem
Provers Formal Verification
• The knowledge base may be huge The knowledge base may be huge
• Between 1990 Between 1990 – 2000 storage became free storage became free
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 5
The ability to learn The ability to learn
„ Can we learn to solve a problem better? Can we learn to solve a problem better?
‹ Learning the ans Learning the answers
‹ Learning the rules of the game Learning the rules of the game
‹ Learning to plan Learning to plan
„ Belief networks Belief networks
„ Perceptrons Perceptrons and Neural networks and Neural networks
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 6
What then is AI? What then is AI?
Automated Problem Solving Automated Problem Solving
Logic and Deduction Logic and Deduction
Machine Learning Machine Learning
Computer vision Computer vision
NLP
Robotics Robotics
Human Computer Human Computer
interaction interaction
In this decade, communication will become free
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 7
Fundamentals Fundamentals
„ The notion of expressing computation as an The notion of expressing computation as an
algorithm algorithm
„ Godel’s Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem (1931): Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
‹ In any language expressive enough to describe the In any language expressive enough to describe the
properties of properties of natural numbers, natural numbers, there are true statements that there are true statements that
are undecidable: that is, their truth cannot be establis : that is, their truth cannot be established by
any algorithm. any algorithm.
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 8
Fundamentals Fundamentals
„ Church-Turing Thesis (1936): Turing Thesis (1936):
‹ The Turing machine is capable of computing any The Turing machine is capable of computing any
computable function computable function
‹ This is the accepted definition of This is the accepted definition of computability computability
„ The notion of intractability The notion of intractability
‹ NP-completeness completeness
‹ Reduction
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 9
Course Outline Course Outline
„ Problem solving by search Problem solving by search
‹ State space search, State space search,
‹ Problem reduction search, Problem reduction search,
‹ Game play Game playing
„ Logic and deduction Logic and deduction
‹ First-order logic, Temporal logic, Deduc order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
„ Planning Planning
„ Reasoning under Uncertainty Reasoning under Uncertainty
„ Learning Learning
„ Additional Topics Additional Topics
CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 10
References References
„ Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach A Modern Approach
— Stuart Rus Stuart Russell and Peter ell and Peter Norvig
„ Principles of Artificial Intelligence Principles of Artificial Intelligence
— N J Nilsson Nilsson
„ Heuristics Heuristics
— Judea Pearl Judea Pearl

Artificial intelligence

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