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Course: CS40002 Course: CS40002

Instructor: Dr. Instructor: Dr. Pallab Dasgupta Pallab Dasgupta

Department of Computer Sc Department of Computer Science & Engineering e & Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Kharagpur

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 2

What is AI? What is AI?

Turing Test (1950) Turing Test (1950)

The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype

It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or

human at the other end human at the other end

• Sufficiency: The Chinese Room Argument

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 3

The ability to solve problems The ability to solve problems

Search: Search: Efficient trial Efficient trial-and-error

Enormous computational complexity Enormous computational complexity

Space-time trade time trade-offs

Use of domain knowledge e of domain knowledge – heuristics heuristics

Integer

Prog. Linear

Prog.

Dynamic

Prog.

Heuristic

Search Evolutionary

Algorithms

During 1985 During 1985-1995 computation became free computation became free

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 4

Knowledge and Deduction Knowledge and Deduction

How to store and retrieve knowledge? How to store and retrieve knowledge?

How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce? How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?

The gap between knowledge and realization The gap between knowledge and realization

Logics of knowledge of knowledge

Knowledge

Based

Systems Expert Systems

Automated

Theorem

Provers Formal Verification

• The knowledge base may be huge The knowledge base may be huge

• Between 1990 Between 1990 – 2000 storage became free storage became free

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 5

The ability to learn The ability to learn

Can we learn to solve a problem better? Can we learn to solve a problem better?

Learning the ans Learning the answers

Learning the rules of the game Learning the rules of the game

Learning to plan Learning to plan

Belief networks Belief networks

Perceptrons Perceptrons and Neural networks and Neural networks

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 6

What then is AI? What then is AI?

Automated Problem Solving Automated Problem Solving

Logic and Deduction Logic and Deduction

Machine Learning Machine Learning

Computer vision Computer vision

NLP

Robotics Robotics

Human Computer Human Computer

interaction interaction

In this decade, communication will become free

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 7

Fundamentals Fundamentals

The notion of expressing computation as an The notion of expressing computation as an

algorithm algorithm

Godel’s Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem (1931): Incompleteness Theorem (1931):

In any language expressive enough to describe the In any language expressive enough to describe the

properties of properties of natural numbers, natural numbers, there are true statements that there are true statements that

are undecidable: that is, their truth cannot be establis : that is, their truth cannot be established by

any algorithm. any algorithm.

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 8

Fundamentals Fundamentals

Church-Turing Thesis (1936): Turing Thesis (1936):

The Turing machine is capable of computing any The Turing machine is capable of computing any

computable function computable function

This is the accepted definition of This is the accepted definition of computability computability

The notion of intractability The notion of intractability

NP-completeness completeness

Reduction

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 9

Course Outline Course Outline

Problem solving by search Problem solving by search

State space search, State space search,

Problem reduction search, Problem reduction search,

Game play Game playing

Logic and deduction Logic and deduction

First-order logic, Temporal logic, Deduc order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction

Planning Planning

Reasoning under Uncertainty Reasoning under Uncertainty

Learning Learning

Additional Topics Additional Topics

CSE, IIT CSE, IIT Kharagpur Kharagpur 10

References References

Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach A Modern Approach

— Stuart Rus Stuart Russell and Peter ell and Peter Norvig

Principles of Artificial Intelligence Principles of Artificial Intelligence

— N J Nilsson Nilsson

Heuristics Heuristics

— Judea Pearl Judea Pearl