You have probably used computers to do all sorts of useful and interesting things. In each application, the computer responds in different ways to your input, from the keyboard, mouse or a file. Still the underlying operations are
1.1.1. Low-Level and High-Level Computer Operations. First let us place Python programming 1.1.1. Low-Level and High-Level Computer Operations. First let us place Python programming type of computer. The instructions are designed to be simple for the hardware to execute, not for humans to follow. The earliest programming was done with such instructions. If was difficult and error-prone. A major advance was the development of higher-level languages and translators for them. Higher-level languages allow computer programmers to write instructions in a format that is easier for humans to understand. For example z = x+y is an instruction in many high-level languages that means something like: (1) Access the value stored at a location labeled x No computer understands the high-le
Dr. Andrew N. Harrington, Loyola University Chicago
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A computer program, from one perspective, is a sequence of instructions that dictate the flow of electrical impulses within a computer system. These impulses affect the computer’s memory and interact with the display screen, keyboard, and mouse in such a way as to produce the “magic” that permits humans to
perform useful tasks, solve high-level problems, and play games. One program allows a computer to assume
the role of a financial calculator, while another transforms the machine into a worthy chess opponent. Note
the two extremes here:
• at the lower, more concrete level electrical impulses alter the internal state of the computer, while
• at the higher, more abstract level computer users accomplish real-world work or derive actual pleasure.
So well is the higher-level illusion achieved that most computer users are oblivious to the lower-level
activity (the machinery under the hood, so to speak). Surprisingly, perhaps, most programmers today write
software at this higher, more abstract level also. An accomplished computer programmer can develop
sophisticated software with little or no interest or knowledge of the actual computer system upon which it
runs. Powerful software construction tools hide the lower-level details from programmers, allowing them
to solve problems in higher-level terms.
The concepts of computer programming are logical and mathematics……pl. read more………….visit